Apple orchard as a business in Ukraine

Tuesday, March 23, 2021
Apple orchard as a business in Ukraine

Sale of a turnkey business with estimations and detailed instructions

Apples are one of the most popular fruits that are in constant demand on the market. It is second only to citrus fruits and bananas by the volume of apples harvested in the world. Ukrainian farmers gather around 1.5 million tons of apples annually, and the number of countries that permanently buy our product has already reached 25. In Ukraine, the consumption of apples is, on average, 17 kg per person, and the trend is growing. Relatively low prices and a wide range of applications make the product so popular among customers. And thanks to new technologies of growing and due to the assortments of apples, the business has accelerated profits. Today the payback period of an orchard in Ukraine is from one to five years. GTInvest company presents a complete project of apple-growing business with detailed calculations and complete information on growing storage and sales of the product on the Ukrainian and European markets.

The most popular varieties. How to care apple trees. General Information

Today there are eight most popular varieties of apples among farmers which never lie around unsold on the supermarket shelves: Golden Delicious, Semerenko, Red Delicious, Starking, Royal Delicious, Jonared, Idared, and Stayman.

There are fall and winter, tall and dwarf apple varieties. You should consider planting all these varieties of apple trees for a consistent profit. In this way, you can work and sell products throughout most of the year, plus this format reduces the risks of loss of the crop. The choice of variety should be based on the requirements of the technology of growing.

Apple business also implies certain techniques for the care of trees. Even though these manipulations are easy and quite unfastidious, they must be performed regularly. The installation of supports under trees will provide a smooth structure of the tree and will save it from a strong wind, which can break the branches. It is mandatory to timely carry out the cleaning of weeds and grass in between the rows. It can be done with a chainsaw. Watering the garden is carried out either manually or with a drip irrigation system. Advantages for the investor are those agricultural farms that are located near natural water bodies. Proper pruning of trees and treatment of apple trees against insects is particularly important, for this purpose insecticides are used: Simazine, Kerb, Roundup, Glyphosate, Fosulen, and others.

With proper care, the apple orchard will become a stable business for many years. Gradually the planting is rejuvenated, replacing old trees with new varieties, and the yield remains at a high level.

The garden is a complete system, which requires the correct and timely implementation of all technological operations of care: protection and nutrition system, crown formation, root zone care, wilting thinning, etc.

Spraying the garden is one of the most responsible jobs. On average, growers do 20 treatments per season. Pruning is done annually, mostly from February. “Green” operations are done in summer to remove unwanted growth if needed. To get a high yield, it is necessary to keep a balance between vegetative and productive processes — irrigation and nutrition should correspond to the nature of growth and fruiting. Thinning of ovaries is carried out to achieve optimal yield (fruit weight and number) and to prevent the overloading of trees. There should also be a varieties pollinator. Future harvests depend on the good pollination of the orchard. Bumblebees pollinate the orchard at low temperatures and their presence is a must in pear orchards. As an option, you can also attract (creating the necessary conditions) or buy Osmia — wild bees. 3–4 bee families are enough for 1 hectare of an apple orchard. It will increase the yield by 10–15%. In China, due to the excessive use of chemicals, bees have died completely in some regions. As a result, people pollinate pears on their own and this is quite a sought-after profession. In the U.S., the invention of a robot bee has been patented, which in the nearest future will replace bees in regions where they are extinct.

Planting and Caring for Apple Trees

  • Planting: done in spring, before the beginning of the sap run, and in autumn.

1st — at the end of April with organic fertilizers

2nd — before flowering

3rd — during fruit ripening

4th — in the autumn

  • Pruning: in spring, before sap formation, and in autumn after leaf fall.


There is a growing interest in organic produce in the world today.

An intensive orchard is planted with seedlings on dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstock and provides for a support system and drip irrigation. Number of trees per 1 hectare — from 3 to 8 thousand seedlings, the yield from 45 tons and above.

The method of production can be traditional (with the use of chemicals) or organic. In organic farming, it is forbidden to use chemicals (fertilizers, herbicides), only bio protection, and biofertilizers. By the way, the cost of growing organic apples is not higher than conventional apples. Among the fixed costs of growing fruits, about 25–30% are plant protection against pests and diseases, as well as the nutrition system. For example, the cost of treatment of traditional orchards is about 2200 euros annually per 1 hectare of an orchard, organic — about 780 euros (using Ukrainian products). To reduce the costs of growing, some companies use a combined system of protection: chemistry + bio preparations.

Intensive orchards can be organic if the system of organic production is used. The demand for “organic” in developed countries exceeds the supply: more and more people buy healthy products, despite the significant price difference. For example, in Denmark, there is a law that 80% of all products in retail (retail sales) must be organic since 2020.

Farmers’ interest in organic gardening and Ukraine is growing every year, so it is important to offer nursery owners comprehensive solutions — from the planning stage to planting a garden and subsequent full consulting support.

First, you need to pay attention to the location for planting a garden, factoring in the biological characteristics of crops and requirements for soil and climatic conditions. You can sow siderites before planting to obtain a natural fertilizer. As an option — mustard has good phytosanitary properties. If it is a question of laying an organic garden, you need to provide a “buffer zone”, that is, there should not be traditional crop cultivation with chemistry at a certain distance from the site.

In European countries, the experience of growing organic products has been developing for decades. A good example is the co-up VOG (South Tyrol, Italy, established in 1945). Currently, the cooperative already has 180 farmers owning 600 hectares of orchards with an annual yield of 25 thousand tons of apples (not all plantations have reached full fruit-bearing capacity).

On average, gardeners have 2–3 hectares of land. United, they can form good batches of homogeneous varieties of high quality. They harvested around 60–65 tons of organic apples from 1 hectare. 90% of the grown products are exported to European countries. Parts of the apples that do not meet the requirements of the fresh market are sold for processing at a high price. Sorting, storage, packaging, marketing, promotion — all this is done at a high professional level. The farmer’s goal is to grow a good product. The slogan of the co-op is “Together — for better quality and excellent service”.

According to the head of this co-op, they have extremely limited land and no room to expand. While in Ukraine there is still vacant land and plots that can be converted to organic cultivation. The land is much cheaper than in European countries. For example, one hectare in the Netherlands costs 30–40 thousand euros while in Ukraine it starts from 1 thousand euros.

As for the climate, the amount of rain in our country is less than in our European neighboring countries, which allows us to grow an organic, high-quality product with less spraying. Large fluctuations between night and day temperature allow getting a bright color of apples, which is an important factor in the pricing.

Organic horticulture has been developing for quite a long time in Ukraine. Many old high-growing plantations (so-called wild crops) are certified. But the yields are at the level of 2–10 tons/ha, and it is an animal feed apple of the second grade (picked up from the ground). As for the new intensive plantations, with thickening from 3000 trees as much as 40–45 tons of apples can be obtained per 1 hectare on average. These are mainly marketable products. Substandard apples can be sold as a raw material of 1st grade (plucked from the tree).

The cost of growing organic fruit is lower than conventional, which guarantees greater earnings for farmers.

Such products have high export potential. The domestic market is also not saturated: organic pears are not represented in Ukraine at all. There are just apples, but very few. Juices, dried and apple concentrates are made by several companies. Products such as organic baby food and cider are imported from abroad. Therefore, the projects to develop the domestic market for the products remain relevant. Now, organic production in Ukraine covers only 1% of the land area (almost 400 thousand hectares), while the export of these products is about 100 million euros. Ukraine has a favorable environment for successful organic production, but due to the low awareness of domestic producers and investors about the cultivation and prospects of organic products, farmers do not sufficiently develop this area.


In 2019, exports of concentrated apple juice and direct-pressed juice were estimated at $54.8 million. Out of all types of apple processing, the production of concentrate uses the largest number of raw materials. Production yield is 1:7, which means 7 tons of apples are needed for 1 ton of concentrate. Juice from the concentrate, or reconstituted — is a product, obtained by adding prepared drinking water to a concentrated natural and/or puree juice with simultaneous flavor recovery by adding natural flavorings or without flavor recovery.

NFC (not from concentrate) direct pressed juice is a natural juice obtained exclusively by mechanical pressure on fresh fruit. Such juice, in contrast to the reconstituted from concentrate, includes the maximum amount of all the useful natural substances of fruit, which they get from nature. The juice yield is about 700–800 ml per 1 kg of apples. In the production of juices of direct expression, it is not allowed to use not only preservatives but also other additives, even natural ones, such as sugar, water, acid, etc. So, the only way to store this product for a long time is thermal processing (pasteurization at 78° C). The cost of concentrates and juices is influenced by how much raw material for processing in a particular year and, accordingly, what is the price for it.

Some large farms in Ukraine, which own from 50 to 100 hectares of apple orchards, have their production of directly pressed juices, processing all substandard products. Apple orchards on dwarf rootstock (M-9) provide a yield of 45–60 tons/ha (depending on thickening). 20–25 hectares of orchards may be sufficient for growing organic products if we use the entire harvest for processing. Organic direct pressing juices can be purchased at 70 UAH (2.1 EUR) per liter in Ukrainian retail stores.


Apple orchard in the village Stepanovka, Kherson region. Ready-made offer for an investor

Price: $185,000

Total area: 37 hectares

Age of fruit trees: 5–7.5 years

The fruit-bearing apple orchard is located in the steppes of the Kherson region near the Dnieper and Koshevaya rivers. Fertile soil and generous sunshine allow you to collect a generous harvest from all 820 trees of this magnificent orchard, which grows three types of the most common varieties with excellent taste: Golden Delicious, Idared, and Semerenko. Fertile black soil and proximity to water bodies create ideal conditions for trees, and a dry steppe climate with mild winters and warm autumn reliably protects trees from freezing. The object has a very convenient infrastructure because it is located just 7 km from Kherson and 8.5 km from the airport.

The care of the trees is carried out manually without the use of harmful fertilizers. For watering the trees drip irrigation from the Dnieper River and Nikopol Reservoir is used.

Orchard yield: 300 tons per year.

Apple Picking and Storage

The apple harvest usually begins in September through November. Apples are picked by hand to avoid damage, after which the apple quickly rots and can be thrown away. The stalk of the fruit is preserved during harvesting. Stack the picked apples in boxes (wooden or plastic) and cover them with paper, to increase the shelf life.

  • Refrigeration equipment should automatically maintain the required temperature range. The ideal temperature for storing apples is 7 degrees.

KHOLOD ENGINEERING — GTInvest’s partner in the field of industrial refrigeration, manufacturing, and trade equipment has prepared a detailed proposal for the construction and equipping of a 360 tons capacity apple store with a regulated gas environment using ULO (ultra-low oxygen) technology. A detailed proposal of the project can be found in the attachment.

Overall costs with design drawings, equipment, and installation are 786 thousand euros. The controlled atmosphere remote monitoring system allows automating the process of fruit storage. The automation of the generator and the absorber is performed on their server. The operator can change the composition of the atmosphere in the storage room remotely, based on the current need. The operation can be monitored and adjusted from a PC, phone, or tablet. The system enables to register the room temperature and keep an archive of values, perform automatic analysis and alarms about emergency modes, as well as remotely determine the level of an emergency and decide whether it is necessary to call the service. Besides the main generator and the adsorber, the equipment for the controlled atmosphere chamber includes a set of differential pressure valves, compensation bags, a compressor with a receiver for compressed air supply, a set of test gas mixtures with a reducer, a set of fittings for air duct assembly, and wiring materials.

For your convenience, their specialists offer to fill in the Customer Questionnaire, provide all the details of your business and calculate the detailed project cost. The main information in the questionnaire of the client pertains to the current state of the storage room: the base on which it is placed (soil / concrete / above the basement / above the room). The information about thermal insulation of the chamber, the volume of production (tons), temperature conditions, information about varieties of apples, cooling units, design preferences, and additional options.

Pros of using the controlled atmosphere

  1. Retains the natural color of fruits — carbon dioxide stabilizes the product’s color.

Options for selling the harvest of the Apple orchard

  1. Exports of goods abroad. The key clients of our fruits last year were Belarus, Iraq, Turkey, Austria, and Moldova

Stocks of apples are quickly running out due to steady demand, which triggers a further rise in prices. Growers are forced to raise prices because of the active demand for these fruits both from the wholesale companies and retail chains, while the stocks of apples in the storages are decreasing. Representatives of wholesale companies say the increase in purchase prices for apples is a forced response since it gets increasingly difficult to buy fruits of the required quality in the necessary quantities. In the off-season, some producers often decide to suspend sales in anticipation of higher prices. Some stop the sales till the winter when there is a huge shortage of supply of quality apples. First, there is a shortage of supply of apples from refrigerators with a controlled atmosphere. Now, apple prices in Ukraine have already exceeded last year’s level by more than two times.

As of mid-January 2021, the sales of apples from unequipped storage facilities have already ended and almost all products of medium and low quality have run out. Products of higher quality are often actively either exported or kept in equipped storage. Today the price range for apples in Ukraine is 8–17 UAH/kg (0.25–0.50 EUR), and the average price rose by 1 UAH/kg (0.03 EUR) to 13 UAH/kg (0.4). Since early 2020, most varieties of apples on the Ukrainian market rose by 10–20% in price. The price trend continued in 2021. Judging by the trend, the products of the 2020 crop will continue to rise in price, but the price level is difficult to predict, as in the spring of 2021 the pricing will be affected by changes in stocks of apples in neighboring Poland and Moldova. Fruit importers note the rising average price for apples in UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Asian countries (Singapore, Malaysia, etc.) due to a reduction in the supply of cheap apples from China. Because of the danger of coronavirus, many countries have imposed an embargo on products from China, which could not but affect the prices. Besides, consumers in these countries positively perceive Ukrainian products for their quality. At the end of 2019, Ukraine started exporting apples more actively to the UAE, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Bahrain. Thus, according to UN FAO economist Andrey Yarmak, the cost of the cheapest apples in Singapore is 0.66 euros per piece. Our orchardists have excellent prospects on the world market. However, the development of apple orchards requires a developed infrastructure: modern fruit farms, production of effective gardening equipment, creation of numerous fruit storage facilities and wholesale markets of agricultural products, and full-fledged logistics, including international. These production factors in Ukraine now are only in the active phase of development.

Risks of Apple-Growing Business

Despite excellent prospects, in this business, as in any other, some risks can be foreseen at the planning stage. Mainly these are the risks associated with weather conditions. They can be minimized by following basic rules. To make it easier for the apple orchard to tolerate droughts, it is advisable to install an irrigation system, optimally — drip irrigation plus over-the-crown irrigation against spring frosts. The roots of dwarf rootstocks are close to the surface, so they can freeze. To avoid this, you need to mulch the trees well when planting.

The list of possible risks also includes a decrease in the price of apples. The issue can be resolved by agreeing and signing an agreement in advance with a specific price. Risks of apple crop failure also exist, but with the observance of cultivation and care technologies, they are reduced to a minimum.


The main driving force of apple progress in Ukraine is not even the financial resources that are invested in intensive apple orchards, but experienced agronomists-practitioners who provide quality yields. Vasily Shvets is a well-known personality in the agrarian circles of Ukraine. He has a huge experience in establishing and growing 8 large apple plantations in Ukraine and two orchards in Poland. He is the guru of apple consulting in Ukraine. He is guided by the principle of his Dutch teacher Jan Holter: “There is no place for greed and pity in the orchard. Do not be greedy and give the trees what they need here and now: support, water, fertilizer, treatments, and so on. And in the same way, don’t let your hand tremble to uproot when it comes time to change the orchard.” I am sure if you plan financial resources for the entire scope of work and plant proven varieties, success is inevitable.

Agro-Etalon Company (Vinnytsia region)

The structure of the enterprise includes fields, orchards, cold storage, grain storage, and drying complex. Land Bank is 3700 hectares, of which 650 hectares are used for gardens. The number of employees: 980 people. Agro-Etalon has the country’s largest refrigerator for storing fruit — an area of 18 thousand square meters. There is also a sorting and packing line with a capacity of 15 tons/hour. The company sells its products mainly in Ukraine and exports them to Saudi Arabia and CIS countries. In 2018 the international quality certificate Global G.A.P. was obtained. It is the only integrated standard for primary products with the possibility of applying its modules to different product groups — from the production of plant products to animal breeding. The company is considering building a fruit processing plant.

The farm Apple Orchard (Cherkasy region)

Intensive technologies in horticulture are implemented on the farm. The farm manager has mastered the experience of gardening personally, visiting many European countries. The total area of the farm is about five hectares, of which three hectares — orchard on dwarf rootstock M-9 and M-26. Two hectares — fruit nursery, where they grow seedlings, 0.2 ha — cold store for 100 tons of apples. The main type of commercial products are apples of the varieties Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Red Delicious, Idared, Delbarefestivale, Eliza, Renet Simirenko. Garden yields of about 50 tons per hectare.
The main channels of sales: wholesalers and retail chains of Cherkasy.


Over 23 years in cultivation of seedlings of fruit trees on dwarf rootstocks in favorable for gardening Cherkasy region.

The principles of organic cultivation of seedlings in the farm:

  1. The use of “fresh” soil and sowing of siderites


Since last year there has been more interest in pears. This is explained by the fact that the cost of planting an orchard is absolutely the same for both apples and pears, and the price of sales differs in favor of pears. The cost of pear fruits is 2–3 times higher than the cost of apples However, the pear orchard is more fastidious. November and Conference are the most famous and sought-after varieties both in the world and in Ukraine. For example, in Holland and Belgium — about 80% of pear orchards are at the variety Conference. Yablunivska pear is a sought-after winter variety of Ukrainian selection. The summer group of varieties — Klapp’s favorite, Moldavian summer.

According to biological features, pears are close to apples. But at the same time, it has more intensive growth, the high awakening of buds, compact sparse crown. The roots penetrate much deeper into the ground than those of the apple trees. Thus, pear trees are considered to be more durable and drought-resistant. But it is also more heat-loving. Pears start producing fruits on the 3rd-7th year, but if grafted on dwarf rootstock then on the 2nd-3rd year. Fruiting buds of pear blossom 3–5 days earlier than growth or leaf buds. The strengths of this crop include the fact that it bears fruit annually and abundantly. Nevertheless, the pear ranks second in terms of prevalence. And the main deterrent is the poor winter hardiness of late-ripening varieties. For pears to ripen properly, summer varieties need 90 spring and summer days with average daily temperatures above 15°C. Autumn varieties need 90–100 days and winter varieties need 100–115 days. That is why the same varieties grown in different regions of Ukraine, ripen and bear fruit differently. Under the sun deficit, the pears do not mature. Yields decrease sharply. In this regard, a program of creating new late varieties — tasty, winter-hardy, scab-resistant has been developed and implemented. However, if modern storage facilities are equipped, a pear-growing business will become very profitable in Ukraine.

Dear Sirs,

Kholod-Engineering Ltd, being the professionals in the selection, supply, and installation of refrigeration supply systems are glad to offer our services to you.

The design of refrigeration systems for your vegetable storehouse has several technological and design features. Our specialists have applied effective modern engineering equipment of leading European manufacturers, which has the best price-quality ratio. This technical solution saves money on repairs and maintenance of the system. We guarantee the reliability of the refrigeration equipment in your vegetable storehouse under year-round operation and spike loads.

Our advantages:

  • Prompt and quality technical support

With our extensive experience in complete turnkey projects, we implement the best technical solution within your budget. The quality of our products will always match their price, and subsequent service will be highly qualified.

That is what our company’s job is all about. We are always in line with global trends. We offer our existing and prospective customers only cutting-edge and sought-after options of refrigeration and freezers. If necessary, we can provide a variety of technical projects, which will allow you to choose the best option.

With a fleet of specially equipped vehicles, we will promptly solve all issues should regarding the repair of equipment.

Among our clients are the following reputed Ukrainian companies:

Technical and Commercial Proposal

Having done the thermo-technical calculations, we suggest you use a multi-compressor station on the four semi-hermetic piston compressors Bitzer (Germany) and air-cooled condenser Thermofin (Germany). The best solution for the storage of onions would be to use active ventilation (a system of mixing outside air into the chamber) in conjunction with refrigeration equipment.

The proposal does not include:

  • Additional electrical installation not related to refrigeration equipment

Delivery Terms

  • The delivery time is 4–7 weeks from the upfront payment

Equipment Characteristics

Three independent refrigeration systems, consisting of multi-compressor stations with three semi-hermetic piston compressors BITZER (Germany), are used as a source of cold supply for all chambers. Condensers of Thermofin company (Germany), air cooling for high ambient temperatures are equipped with axial fans, which are characterized by high efficiency and low power consumption. Built-in thermal protection protects the motor windings from overheating. These refrigeration units are fully automated and do not require permanent supervision.

In the winter months, the operation of the refrigeration units is ensured through the use of an oil heater in the compressors and a condensing pressure control system.

Goedhart fruit and vegetable evaporators from the industrial VNS-Agro series work with little DT due to their large heat transfer area and tube arrangement and so reduce dehydration of the product. The cooler has a low height so that the space of the cold chamber can be used to the maximum and the height of the building can be saved. The large length of the evaporator ensures even air distribution across the entire width of the cold room. Each air cooler is equipped with an electronic thermostatic expansion valve that controls the refrigerant supply and regulates the refrigerant flow rate as precisely as possible, thus providing precise temperature control in the compartment.

The heat exchanger consists of 15 mm copper tubes with pressed aluminum plates. The tubes are arranged in a 50/50 mm square pattern. The distance between the plates is 7 mm. The air cooler is equipped with a weak electric defrost unit.

Autonomous operation of the cooling systems is carried out through the use of electronic control units, in which the basic parameters of the system are entered: time, temperature, and frequency of defrosting, humidity, and temperature in the chamber.

Scrubber IS 400 M

Absorption capacity at 3% CO2 400 kg/day

The IS series CO2 absorber represents the latest technology in the field of CO2 absorbers and is the result of increased requirements on the Controlled atmosphere and the need to maintain extremely low CO2 and O2 concentrations. The standard features of the absorber include:

Automatic cycle setup.

Automatic cycle end.

Automatic cycle setup.

This function provides real-time communication between the absorber and the computerized gas analysis system. The absorber adjusts the operating mode according to the concentration values in the chamber. With this function the absorption process is optimized, thereby reducing energy consumption and obtaining extremely low concentrations.

Automatic end of the cycle.

This function works so that the equipment always has a regenerated tank at the end of the cycle in one chamber and at the beginning of the next chamber. Due to this feature, it is possible to avoid the downtime of the equipment for tank regeneration when working on several chambers with different CO2 concentrations.

Description of the operation of the absorber

An electric fan draws air containing CO2 from the room and forces it through the tank filled with a molecular sieve that keeps out the CO2, whereafter the air flows back into the room. After the molecular sieve wear-out, part of the filter tanks is switched to regeneration mode using a system of valves, while the regenerated tanks are put into operation. The residual oxygen from the molecular sieve is completely removed by a special procedure after the regeneration is complete. The change of work cycles (absorption, regeneration, oxygen removal) is performed automatically. All processes are controlled by a microprocessor unit mounted on the side of the unit.

Nitrogen generation circuit (Fig. 3)

Nitrogen generator PSA 20 SLF.

Capacity 31.03 m3/hr at 99% N2

Fig. 3. Nitrogen generation circuit diagram:

1 — Air Compressor

2 — Air Receiver

3–7 — Air Filtration System

8 — Nitrogen Generator

9 — Circulation Receiver

10 — Nitrogen Receiver.

This is a revolutionary unit capable of producing nitrogen with a high degree of purity from atmospheric air. The process is carried out by forcing the air through a molecular sieve consisting of two filters, one of which absorbs while the other is regenerating.

PC with software

The software displays the data and prints them out on request. The operator can set the maximum and minimum percentages of carbon dioxide and oxygen or other parameters to be maintained in the cell.

Gas analyzer

Designed specifically to automate carbon dioxide removal and oxygen injection. The oxygen is measured by an electrochemical element while the carbon dioxide is measured by infrared beams. The carbon dioxide removal and oxygen injection unit are controlled by a microprocessor. It is supplied with an air sampling pump.

The analyzer must be supplied with gas cylinders to perform automatic calibration:

  • 1 cylinder shall contain a mixture of 4% CO2–4% O2 the rest N2.


1. Pressure gauges (10 pcs)

2. Water pressure gauge 250mm on wooden panel

3. Overpressure valves (10 pcs)

4. Ø100mm for overpressure and vacuum control that may occur during the operation

5. PVC sleeves (10 pcs)

6. Sleeves for airtight insertion through walls of gas analyzer tubes, nitrogen supply tubes, tubes of carbon dioxide removal circuit, overpressure valves, breathing bags

7. Breathing bags (10 pcs)

8. Bags are used to compensate for pressure changes in a chamber

Important. This quotation should be regarded as a tender and is not final. Kholod-Engineering Ltd, reserves the right to make commercial and technical changes to this quote to improve it or due to changes (or customer requirements) in the overall construction project. The terms of equipment delivery and the final cost of this Quote will be specified during the negotiations.

Do not hesitate to contact us to clarify any issues.

Respectfully, Kholod-Engineering Ltd.

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